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NATO and the Architects
of American Empire

Professor
Dr. Nikolai von Kreitor

 

NATO and the Architects of American Lebensraum

It was John OSullivan who in 1845 formulated the concept of American Lebensraum - the Manifest Destiny Doctrine. He coined the term to signify the mission of the United States to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions.(1) For Josiah Strong, the American missionary imperialist par excellence, the Manifest Destiny had geopolitical destinationthe creation of a world empire. The America would be the greatest of all empires. Other nations would bring their offerings to the cradle of the young empire of the West , as they had once taken their gifts to the cradle of Jesus.(2) Since the destiny and its destination were preordained by God , Americans possessed supreme title to space, preempting and superseding the right of others. Combined with the Monroe Doctrine, the theological rationale of the Manifest Destiny Doctrine provided an almost evangelical explanation of the geopolitical manifest design to conquer and subjugate space, first the whole Western Hemisphere and then, beginning with the war against Spain in 1898, the whole world. As Carl Schmitt has pointed out, in 1898 USA embarked on a war against Spain and latter against the world which has not ended yet. In this context the American war against Yugoslavia is only a continuation of the one hundred years war which the United States began in 1898.

In the history of the United States the expansionist impulse has been as powerful as religion. The continuity of American expansionist war aims since the time of the Manifest Destiny Doctrine has been the most predominant feature of American foreign policy in which the three components of American expansionist Weltanschauung confluence: The Manifest Destiny Doctrine the theological component conquest preordained by God and Providence to carry the will of the Almighty, and subsequently, conquest to establish democracy or in the interests of democracy or mankind, The Monroe Doctrine the geopolitical component and the Open Door Doctrine the economical component.

It was at the end of the last century that the intellectual foundations of the American geopolitical doctrine were formulated by Frederick Jackson Turner, Brooks Adams, admiral Mahan, and its implementation begun by Theodore Roosevelt and subsequently Woodrow Wilson. The geopolitical concepts advanced by Frederick Jackson Turner, Brooks Adams and admiral Mahan became a world view, an expansionist Weltanschauung for subsequent generation of Americans and ... important to understand Americas imperial expansion in the twentieth century, writes the noted American historian William Williams. The policies of American Lebensraum, called Open-Door imperialism, and the enlargement of the American empire through expansion of the perimeter of the Monroe Doctrine, is the explanation of Americas foreign policy during this century, including the present policies of NATO expansion, assertion of American preponderance of power over the whole Eurasia and the war against Yugoslavia.

The architects of the American Lebensraum provided also the rationale for NATO. NATO as a geopolitical construct is firmly anchored in the Frontier thesis of the American expansionist foreign policy, appearing as a function and instrument of the Atlantic Grossraum, as envisioned by Turner, Adams and Mahan. Or as Senator Tom Connally stated: the Atlantic Pact is the logical extension of the Monroe Doctrine. The creation of the NATO signified the extension of the Monroe doctrine to Europe - Europe would become for the United States another Latin America, points out the American historian Stephen Amrose. (3)

Frederick Jackson Turners main concept was that Americas uniqueness was the product of an expanding frontier. He defined American historical existence as perpetual geopolitical expansion toward new frontiers in the West. The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession , and the advance of American settlement westward explains the American development(4) The universal disposition of the Americans, an expanding people, is t